I have found that it’s best if you conduct reader interviews yourself. It’s not always clear to a sighted disabilities office employee how to evaluate someone’s aptitude for becoming a reader. As a part of my interview process, I always give the interviewee one paragraph to read that is dense with scientific terms, and the three following sheets of visual information to describe: a complex calculus equation, a drawing of an acetone molecule, and a figure that depicts a ligand docked in the active site of Klebsiella aerogenes (KA) urease.
I listen, not for their ability to recognize and name symbols and chemical compounds, but for their ability to recite what they see in a manner that is clear, thorough, and accurate. Attention to detail is key. For example, with the urease figure, it is important to read the title and to describe that there is a chemical compound centered on the page, surrounded by multicolored circles with three-letter codes and a four-digit number. It is also important to state that there are different line styles: arrowed, solid and dashed. Most people do not even notice the title at the top of the page! The ability of someone to verbally convey descriptions such as these is more important to me than the ability of someone to understand the biochemistry.
Ligand Docking ImageIdeal Description: “Title of image: 1finalkawideopen-ZINC00388081. Holding the page horizontally, there is a compound in the middle surrounded by multicolored circles. Some of the components of the rings have arrows pointing to some colored circles. The compound seems to be made of 2 rings in the middle, the ring on the bottom is open on 2 sides on the left. From the first ring there is a red point leading to ARG2082, a purple arrow pointing from HN+ to ASP1967 and a purple arrow pointing from HN to H20. From the bottom ring, there is a purple arrow pointing from H3N+ to ALA2109. The two aromatic rings are surrounded on the left side by a greenish/blue line, but it starts to fade as it goes to the right side of the image. Also surrounding the aromatic rings and the line are labels HIS, ALA, VAL, LEU, MET.”
Scientific Text (sampled from my thesis)
Signs of a Good Reader
The core skill of a reader is the ability to convert visual information into verbal information. A background in science is not the key necessity, but rather the ability to learn quickly, respond to feedback, and communicate clearly about things they may not understand.
I highly value a reader who can accept criticism. The nature of the job leads to a lot of conversation, communication, and correction over how they perform their tasks. Of course, there is a burden on me to be considerate and kind with my criticism. But, a person who can receive and incorporate criticism without becoming too stressed or offended makes a very good reader.
Signs of a Bad Reader
If I had to chose a fatal flaw for a reader, I would say it’s the inability to admit when they don’t know. People who can’t admit when they don’t know something tend to make things up as a cover. I could not believe it when almost half of the people I interviewed said that the molecule on the page was a water molecule when it was actually acetone. I didn’t expect them to know acetone on sight, but did I expect them to say if they didn’t know and to describe the structure instead.
During my studies or research, if my reader gives me the wrong name of a molecule, I won’t be able to correct their mistake. This has happened to me before and caused me to proceed on a false presumption. You need to be able to trust that whatever your reader tells you reflects the information on the page.
Another practical tip for identifying bad readers is to track all your readers’ hours in a record of your own, and to compare it with what they submit to the university’s system. I’ve had readers think they can get away with cheating on their hours.